Tag Archives: task analysis

Symmetry Made Accessible

The work shown below posted on LinkedIn by Maria Priovolou. I think this is awesome.

The photo below shows a focus on just the vertical axis and the student has to reflect one object at a time. This is a nice task analysis approach. The stamp creates the objects which makes it hands on and a little different from just mathy work.

symmetry vertical axis only

This hands on work can be followed with work on this website. In the photo at the bottom you see an example problem. This can make reflection more concrete and eventually more intuitive for the student.

top marks symmetry

top marks symmetry problem.JPG

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So Easy?!

Problems like the addition problem below are often viewed by adults as straight forward. This perception can make it difficult for adults, including teachers and even special education teachers to help students who struggle with it.

I find that the math teacher candidates and special education teacher candidates struggle with breaking down math topics, especially “easy” ones like the one below, into simple steps. To help students who struggle with math breaking down the math topic is imperative. The analogy I use is to break the topic down into bite-sized pieces like we cut up a hot dog for a baby in a high chair.

0217191819_2

For new teachers I use a formal task analysis approach to teach candidates how to cut up the math into bite-sized pieces. A task analysis for the problem above was an assignment given to a group of graduate level special ed candidates. As is common, they overlooked many simple little steps hidden in the problem. These steps are hidden because they are so simple or so automatic in our brains that we don’t think about them. See below for how I break this topic into several pieces or steps. For example, before even starting the addition the person doing the problem has to identify that 43 is a 2-digit number with 4 in the TENS place and 3 in the ONES place. Understanding that the problem is addition which entails pulling the numbers together to get a total (sum) is an essential and overlooked step. If a student struggles with a step the step can be addressed in isolation, as I show in another blog post.

0217191815_2

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Mailbag Jan 29 2018

A reader asked about an algebra 2 problem and shared (below) his effort to cut up the math into bite-sized pieces. I greatly appreciate his effort because he is trying to meet student needs. While this post is very “mathy” I want to make a couple of points to the readers. First, I wrote out a detailed response (2nd photo below). Second, in both of our efforts we attempted unpack as much as possible. This is what our students need. Also, the reader is developing his ability to do this unpacking and if he continues he will become increasingly more adept at this skill (growth mindset). That means his future students will benefit!

dougs question about axis of symmetryaxis of symmetry problem broken down

 

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Cutting Up the Math Into Bite-sized Pieces

When I train new math and special education teachers I explain that teaching math should be like feeding a hot dog to a baby in a high chair. Cut up the hot dog into bite-sized pieces. The baby will still consumer the entire hot dog. Same with math. Our students can consume the entire math topic being presented but in smaller chunks.

bite sized pieces

My approach to doing this is through a task analysis. This is very similar to chunking. It is a method to cut up the math into bite-sized pieces just as we would break up a common task for students with special needs.

Image result for task analysis

While waiting for my coffee order at a Burger King I saw on the wall a different version of a task analysis. It was a step by step set of directions using photos on how to pour a soft cream ice-cream cone. I thought it was amazing that Burger King can do such a good job training its employees by breaking the task down yet in education we often fall short in terms of breaking a math topic down.

soft cream icecream cone task analysis

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CTSPEDMATHDUDE Approach to Teaching Math

The purpose for having this website is to share my approach to teaching math. The approach is the use of special ed principles brought to bear on math. Specifically, I use a task analysis approach to break down a math topic into “bite-sized” pieces and to use a variety of instructional strategies and reinforcement to move the student through the individual tasks towards mastery of the math topic (including conceptual understanding).

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Making Slope Less Complicated

slope-graph-real-life-application

Slope is the rate of change associated with a line. This is a challenging topic especially when presented in the context of a real life application like the one shown in the photo. The graphed function has different sections each with a respective slope.

One aspect of slope problems that is challenging is the different contexts of the numbers:

  • The yellow numbers represent time
  • The orange numbers represent altitude
  • The pink numbers represent the slopes of the lines (the one on the far right is missing a negative)

Before having students find or compute slope I present the problem as shown in the photo above and discuss the meaning of the different numbers. What I find is that students get the different numbers confused and teachers often overlook this challenge. This approach is part of a task analysis approach in which the math topic is broken into smaller, manageable parts for the student to consume. Once the different types of numbers are established for the students we can focus on actually computing and interpreting the slope.

This instructional strategy is useful for all grade levels and all math topics.

 

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Documents for Task Analysis Presentation – DADD 2017 Conference

dadd-conference

task-analysis-overview

Here is a link to a Dropbox folder with the documents I will address in my presentation. (Note: documents will not be uploaded until Jan 19, 2017.)

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Documents for Webinars on Supporting Students with Autism in Math

pic_tristate_logosm

Link to Drop Box folder for webinar on Task Analysis

Link to Drop Box folder for webinar on Making Math Meaningful (note: the folder is not populated with handouts with excerpts shown on the video. These documents will be available in the folder by Oct 16.

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Targeting Gaps in a Math Topic

percent vs monetary value

A key to intervention for math is to drill down into a topic to see which step is causing a student problems. This is a big reason why ongoing progress monitoring is vital to intervention.

In this case a student in a previous session had occasionally added the percent to the dollar amounts – the step that was problematic. He conceptually wasn’t thinking about the meaning of the values but just added or subtracted numbers he saw. In response the next session focused on helping the student discern between the percent rate and the monetary values.

In the photo above is the work of the student as review of the previous session. This was followed by highlighting the dollar amounts in green and the percent amount in yellow. It was emphasized that the yellow was not used in the calculation in the bottom row.

This was followed by the task seen in the photo below. The focus is strictly on the one step that was problematic. This was followed by work on IXL.com (2nd photo below) with the student writing in values on the handout shown on the  bottom photo to help the student focus on this tep

percent vs monetary value 2

percent vs monetary value 3

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