Tag Archives: prior knowledge

Information Processing Analogy – Big Picture

Effective instruction is effective because it addresses the key elements of how the brain processes information. I want to share an analogy to help adults (parents and educators) fully appreciate this.

Below is a model of information processing first introduced to me in a master’s course at UCONN.

Here is a summary of what is shown in the model.

  1. Our senses are bombarded by external stimuli: smells, images, sounds, textures and flavors.
  2. We have a filter that allows only some of these stimuli in. We focus on the ones that are most interesting or relevant to us.
  3. Our working memory works to make sense of the stimuli and to package it for storage. Our working memory is like a computer, if there is too much going on, working memory will buffer.
  4. The information will be stored in long term memory.
    • Some will be dropped off in some random location and our brain will forget the location (like losing our keys)
    • Some will be stored in a file cabinet in a drawer with other information just like it. This information is easier to find.

Here is the analogy. You are driving down the street, like the one shown below.

There is a lot of visual stimuli. The priority is for you to pay attention to the arrows for the lanes, the red light and the cars in front of you. You have to process your intended direction and choose the lane.

There is other stimuli that you filter out because it is not pertinent to your task: a car parked off to the right, the herbie curbies (trash bins), the little white arrows at the bottom of the photo. There is extraneous info you may allow to pass through your filter because it catches your eye: the ladder on the right or the cloud formation in the middle.

Maybe you are anxious because you are running late or had a bad experience that you are mulling over. This is using up band width in your working memory. Maybe you are a relatively new driver and simple driving tasks eat up the bandwidth as well.

For students with a disability that impacts processing or attention, the task demands described above are even more challenging. A student with ADHD has a filter that is less effective. A student with autism (a rule follower type) may not understand social settings such as a driver that will run a red light that just turned red. A student with visual processing issues may struggle with picking out the turn arrows.

Effective instruction would address these challenges proactively. Here is a video regarding learning disabilities (LD) that summarizes the need in general for teachers to be highly responsive to student needs. Here is a great video that helps makes sense of what autism in terms of how stimuli can be received by those with autism (look for the street scene). Here is a video of a researcher explaining how ADHD responds to sensory input (he gets to a scenario that effectively encapsulates ADHD).

To address these challenges:

Ironically, this is likely a lot of information for your brain to process…

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Making Proportions Meaningful (and Therefore Accessible)

A student reported to our schools math lab where I reside. He had a handout on proportions shown in the photo below and stated that he didn’t know what to do.

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I find that in the vast majority of situations like this the student lacks the conceptual understanding of the topic. As is typically the case, I started my sessions with the student by focusing on something he more intuitively understood. Teens know money, phones, games, music and food.

In this case I started by showing him a photo on my phone shrunk then enlarged the photo and talked about how I could double the size of the photo. We talk about what doubling means then I show him a handout with the photo in two sizes (below).

I explained that the small photo was 3×2 inches and that I wanted to enlarge it. The bottom of the big photo is 6″ but I needed to figure out the height (vertical length) which is marked with an X.

I had him figure out the height (4). Then I explained that proportional means the shape is the same but bigger or smaller. In this case both the side and bottom were multiplied by 2. Then I showed him the “mathy” way of doing the problems. This progressed towards the handout he brought into math lab. By the end he was doing the proportions independently.

2019-02-26 10.37.27

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Velocity, Acceleration, Speeding Up and Slowing Down

DISCLAIMER: This is a very mathy, math geek post but it also has value in demonstrating instructional strategies and multiple representations.

We all understand speed intuitively. Velocity is speed with a direction. Negative in this case does not indicate a lower value but simply which way an object is traveling. Both cars below are traveling at equivalent speeds.

velocity vs speed

The velocity can be graphed (the red curve below). Where the graph is above the x-axis (positive) the car is traveling to the right. Below is negative which indicates the car is traveling to the left. The 2 points on the x-axis indicate 0 velocity meaning the car stops (no speed). (I will address the blue line at the end of this post as to not clutter the essence of what is shown here for the lay people who are not math geeks.)velocity graph with tangents

Below is an example of using instructional strategies to help make sense of the graph and of velocity, acceleration, speeding up and slowing down.

As stated previously, the points on the x-axis indicate 0 velocity – think STOP sign. As the car moves towards a stop sign it will slow down. When a car moves away from a stop sign it speeds up.

The concept and the graph analysis are challenging for many if not most students taking higher level math. This example shows how instructional strategies are not simply for students who struggle with math. Good instruction works for ALL students!

speeding up and slowing down

It is counterintuitive that when acceleration is negative the car can be speeding up. The rule of thumb is when acceleration and velocity share the same sign (+ or -) the object is speeding up. When the signs are different the object is slowing down. This rule is shown in the graph but the stop sign makes this more intuitive.

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Trick for subtracting integers

I have algebra students, in high school and college, who struggle with evaluating expressions like 2 – 5.  This is a ubiquitous problem.

2-5 problem

I have tried several strategies and the one that is easily the most effective is shown below. When a student is stuck on 2 – 5 the following routine plays out like this consistently.

  • Me: “What is 5 – 2?”
  • Student pauses for a moment, “3”
  • Me: “So what is 2 – 5?”
  • Student pauses, “-3?”
  • Me: Yes!

5-2

I implemented this approach because it ties into their prior knowledge of 5 – 2. It also prompts them to analyze the situation – do some thinking.

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Congruent Triangles

Screenshot 2017-12-13 at 8.45.06 AM

As Piaget highlighted, our brains make connections between new information and previous information (prior knowledge). I introduce the concept of congruent triangles by connecting it to prior knowledge of identical twins (photo above).

This connection is carried throughout the chapter. For example, to show triangles are congruent we look at parts of the triangle, just as we can look at shoe size, pants size and height of 2 people to determine if they are twins (see photo below).

Screenshot 2017-12-13 at 8.51.28 AM.png

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– symbol: negative vs subtraction

The use of the “-” symbol is challenging for many students. They don’t understand the difference between the use of the symbol in -3 vs 5 – 3. To address this I use a real life example of multiple uses of the same symbol (1st 2 photos below) then break down the “-” symbol (photo below at bottom). I suggest this be introduced immediately prior to the introduction of negative numbers.

negative vs subtractionNegative vs Subtraction B

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UDL Approach to Presenting Notes

write equation given slope and point

The photo above shows an excerpt from the presentation of notes in an algebra class using an UDL approach. The following strategies are implemented:

  • Graphic organizer
  • Color coding (notice that the slope, which is a rate of change, is green for go – movement and notice the consistent use of the colors for prior and new knowledge)
  • Connections to prior knowledge
  • Chunking (before attempting numbers the presentation focuses on the contrast between new and prior knowledge)

This allows for Multiple Means of Representation as found in the UDL Guidelines.

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Scaffolding Higher Level Math Topics

_20160116_131524[1]

The graph shown involves derivatives – a calculus level topic. Before getting into this heavier mathy stuff, consider the title of this post and the other content presented on this blog. Making math accessible to all students is not a special ed or a low level math thing. It is a learning thing. This artifact is what I drew to explain the math concept to a student in calculus to help her grasp the concept as well as the steps. The following are strategies used.

  • color coding – each of the 4 sections written in different color
  • connecting to prior knowledge – the concept of velocity was presented in terms of a car’s speed and direction (forward or backing up)
  • chunking – the problem was broken into parts and presented as parts before exploring the whole
  • multiple representations – the function was represented with a graph, data (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) and a picture (at the bottom)

As for the mathy stuff, the concept of velocity was address by its two parts: speed (increasing or decreasing) and direction (positive or negative). The graph was broken into the following parts: decreasing positive, decreasing negative, increasing negative and increasing positive. Each part was presented with possible y-values (data) and the sign. The most intuitive part is increasing positive which is a car going forward and speeding up.

I find that when I provide intervention, this approach especially by addressing conceptual understanding is effective as the students respond well.

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Kim and Kanye are Prior Knowledge (with scaffolding)

functions with Kanye

This is a portion of scaffolded notes I provided for a lesson on functions. This shows two key strategies I often employ: scaffolding and connections to prior knowledge.

The scaffolding is seen in how blanks are provided for students to fill in key information. This saves time on copying notes while still engages students in note taking. In the notes handout I include photos that enrich the notes.

The prior knowledge is the photos. The guys are Kanye West and Chris Humphries (basketball player) with Kim Kardashian (dark hair) and Amber Rose. Kanye was dating Amber and Chris was married to Kim. Kanye then cheated on Amber with Kim. Most students fully understood this situation which allowed for carry over into the concept of functions.  While this connection is not concrete as in CRA representations, it does make the concept more concrete for the students.

Note: a visitor asked if this presentation sent a message to females. That’s a fair question. My response is that the natural follow up is to show Kim matched with Kanye and Chris and ask if that is a function.

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Memory

One model for memory is called the Information Processing Model or Dual Storage Model.

IPM

 

Here’s the suggested process in this model in a class instruction context:

  1. Our senses receive stimuli. In the classroom students hear the teacher or a classmate talking, see the teacher’s notes or the note being passed to them, smell various things in class, taste their gum etc. 
  2. The sensory register filters out most stimuli which means the teacher’s lesson is competing with all the other stimuli for attention. Most students are either visual or hands on learners yet the majority of instruction is conducted through auditory means. Information in a lesson that is meaningful or interesting is more likely to make it through the register.
  3. The information that makes it to the working memory is processed. Working memory has a limited capacity. Like a computer, if it is attempting to process a lot at one time it slows down. It is hard for some students to process a lot of auditory information if they are a visual learner so as they are attempting to process they may be missing other parts of instruction. This is why scaffolding and other strategies are important. They help reduce the amount of information the student has to process. The working memory also attempts to organize and make sense of the information -Gestalt Theory. Here are some examples. When I present the image below under “closure” and ask people what they see, the response is almost always “a triangle.” The really is no triangle there but the brain fills in the gaps. The brain wants to make the visual information meaningful. gestalt-theory-images
  4. The information that makes it to long term memory is filed away. Effective learning means the stored information can be readily retrieved. Think of computer files or files in a file cabinet. I have a file for Gabriel’s IEPs so I can easily retrieve them. Contrast that with how a student may stuff his homework assignment into his bookbag but later cannot find it. Effective storage is enhanced when the information is organized and makes sense. This is helped by making the information meaningful or by addressing prior knowledge (e.g. new IEPs filed with old IEPs).

Most if not all educational strategies would address some aspect of this model.

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