## Word problems are challenging. In middle school and high school, word problems for proportional relationships and linear functions are particularly challenging. This post shows an visualization approach to unpacking the unit rate component of such word problems.

### Visualizing Unit Rate

Below is an excerpt from a handout used to introduce such word problems. It starts with the unit rate and unit quantity provided. This is more accessible for students and allows for a visual representation. This allows students to “see” the multiplication and make a connection to the word problem.

This is followed by situations in which the unit quantity is unknown. Students still draw a visual, but use the 3 dot symbol for etc. to indicate the unknown quantity.

The same problems are used but students now write the symbolic representation. First they write the expression with both factors provided, then with the unknown. The “?” emphasizes there is an unknown quantity before writing the variable.

### The Handout

Here is a link to the handout. It is in WORD format to allow you to enter your own problems.

## This post provides a handout to introduce linear functions and proportional relationships. Multiple instructional strategies are implemented. There is context that draws upon prior knowledge, scaffolding, and visual representations. Graph and table representations of the functions are used as an entry point, without the use of equations.

### Overview

There is a difference between proportional relationships and linear functions, which is addressed in another post. Proportional relationships are a subset of linear functions. They can be used as an entry point by citing it as prior knowledge and then showing how they have a constant rate of change.

### Proportional Relationship

The students complete the table with the images then the table with the variables. This leverages the context to help them make sense of the table and graph. You can follow up by asking them the total for 0. This allows you to highlight the intercept.

### Linear Functions

Linear functions are introduced in similar fashion, including with 0 toppings for the intercept.

### Handout

Here is a link to the handout.

## Proportional Relationship (with k) vs Linear Function (with m)

There have been interesting discussions on various Facebook Teacher pages about proportional relationships vs linear functions. This mirrors discussion about the constant of proportionality vs slope vs unit rates.

The difference between the proportional relationships and slope is context and the ratios. The ratio for the former addresses the variables themselves. The ratio for the slope addresses the change in the variables. This arises from context. To flesh this out let’s use the pay as a function of hours, with \$15 an hour for the hourly rate.

• If we focus on the fact that to compute the total pay, we multiply by the hours worked by 15 we have a proportional relationship and the \$15 an hour is a constant of proportionality.
• If we focus on the fact that every increase of 1 hour results in an increase of \$15 in our total pay, we have a linear function and the \$15 an hour is a rate of change (or slope of the line). Because of the context, we have different constants (k vs m).

## Intro to Ratio Tables

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To introduce ratio tables, I draw upon a relevant prior knowledge for a child. Food, especially pizza is a go to context for me.

Use a CRA approach by using manipulatives (concrete), pictures (representational), and numbers (abstract). The ratio can be changed and other contexts can be used (e.g., \$3 per slice and use dollar bills and the slices).

Here is a link to the Jamboard for an intro to ratio tables. You can make a copy.

## Group Model for Proportional Relationships and Slope Application

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In my experience, many students struggle with translating word problems modeled by a proportional relationship or a linear function into a algebraic expression or equation. (Image below.)

Here is a link to a Jamboard that can be used to introduce the algebraic expression to model the unit rate. (See image below on how to copy and edit.)

Here is how you can use this to introduce modeling the word problem.

• Start with the unit rate concept. In this case there is \$45 “in” every hour. This is modeled in slide 1 (top 2 photos).
• The next 2 photos show slide 2 in which the student duplicates the \$45 image and fills 2 hours, with \$45 “in” each. They complete the multiplication expression by multiplying by 2.
• This is followed by the same steps for 3 hours (photo bottom left) and sequentially to 6 hours.
• In the last slide there are no hours shown because the # of hours is unknown. This leads to using “X” to represent the unknown NUMBER of hours (I don’t let students get away with x=hours) and finally the algebraic expression (bottom photo).

You can make a copy and edit it.

## Multiplication, Proportional Relationships, and Slope Word Problems Updated

I posted previously about unpacking word problems involving multiplication or Slope. Here is an update. I have students draw a picture for the quantities identified. The multiplication situations become apparent when groups of objects are arise through the drawing, in contrast to an addition problem (right).

This also helps algebra students visualize the rate and therefore identify the slope for the line and helps middle school students with unit rate and constant of proportionality.

## Intro to Constant of Proportionality Using Hourly Pay

An effective instructional strategy is to make the new math topic meaningful. A fellow Facebook group member asked about teaching the topic constant of proportionality. My suggestion is to use hourly wages as an introduction.

I created a handout that starts with students finding a job with an hourly pay stated and then completing a time sheet.

This is followed by unpacking the relationship between hours and pay.

This establishes a context and a situation that many if not most students may find interesting and to connect to the math topic. This handout is intended as an introduction and not the formal unpacking of the term.