## Introduction to Key Characteristics of Graphs Using a Rollercoaster

I introduce key characteristics with parabolas and use the analogy of a rollercoaster. Riding once (and never a again) the Superman rollercoaster at Six Flags New England got me thinking about this. At one point the rollercaster hits ground level (a zero) and then goes underground (negative y values).

Here is a handout I use for the introduction. Here are images showing how I use the handouts. The table helps students visualize the x-values and y-values when looking at the graph. The rollercoaster provides extra context for the various characteristics, e.g., increasing means the rollercoaster is going up. Note the scaffolding by adding context clues for each characteristics.

I start with max height of the rollercoaster. I highlight the actual graph first, then the y-values in the table. Then point out we are looking for the x-values for what we highlighted.

The issue of highlighting the vertex for the increasing and decreasing values would be addressed when writing the interval. The idea of the rollercoaster at the tip top provides context to develop the concept.

Similarly, I start with the zeroes. Again, highlight the graph, then the y-values, then the x-values.

The issue of highlighting the zeroes for the positive and negative values would be addressed when writing the interval. The idea of the rollercoaster at the ground level provides context to develop the concept.

I has been effective to have students highlight the parts of the respective axis when discussing the domain and range (not discussed yet). A common challenge is understanding that the x-values continue to the right or left when it appears they simply go down. To address this, I use a very wide parabola to show more lateral movement.

## Intro to Linear Functions and Proportionality Equations Using Context, Tables, and Graphs.

Here is a link to the handout. This approach uses the other representations to lead into the symbol representations – the equations. You can follow up by asking them the total for 0. This allows you to highlight the intercept.

## Introduction to Intercepts – Mini-lesson with Scaffolded Section for Computing

Here is a link to the document, with images showing the notes. This is a mini-lesson with the following components.

• A fill in the blank for writing the lesson objective.
• A Do now which serves as an initiation to the lesson. The y-intercept can be discussed in the context of buying 0 slices of pizza and paying \$1.
• A notes section on what an intercept is.
• Practice session on identifying intercepts in graphs and tables.
• A scaffolded steps section on computing the ordered pair of the intercepts.

## Graphing System of Inequalities – Scaffolded Handout

Here is a document that guides students through graphing one, then the other inequality. On the second page both are graphed on the same coordinate plane.

## Intro to Solving Equations – Seesaws and Oranges

Here is an introduction to solving equations using a Jamboard (see photo at very bottom for how to make a copy). A seesaw is used to unpack the concept of an equation as two sides that are equivalent. The box is used to unpack the concept of a variable representing an unknown number (or oranges in this context). The form of a solution for an equation is established, with students revising to create other solutions.

Students are then provided a couple slides to match seesaw representations with actual equations. The matching provides a scaffold to support the connection between representations.

Then the seesaw and box representation is used to unpack the steps. Students are provided the steps as written directions on how to model the given solving steps with the seesaw.

The students are then provided the equation and seesaw representation, along with the solving steps provided as moveable pieces. Students slide pieces and move seesaw objects to make the connection between the two. Here is a link to a previous post with these handouts.

Finally, students are given the equation and tasked with completing all of the steps including the initial set up. This slide can be copied with new equations entered for additional practice (including having the variable on the right or writing the number before the variable (e.g., 5+m=8).

Make a copy of the Jamboard so you can edit it.

## Combining Like Terms – From Concrete to Symbolic Form

If you find this helpful, please consider making a \$5 donation to build an accessible playground for children with a disability.

Here is a Jamboard (see photo at very bottom for how to make a copy to edit) that presents like terms as visual manipulatives and then eases into the symbolic form – the “mathy” stuff. The following shows each slide as is and how it looks after completion.

Start with two groups of common items, pull them together because they are alike, and compute the total. This slide is designed to introduce the students to how the manipulatives work for this Jamboard and to introduce them to the concept of like terms.

This slide introduces actual like terms. It is the “mathy” representation of the previous slide and is the most basic form of simplifying algebraic expressions. (The phrase, simplifying algebraic expressions, can be introduced later to allow the focus to remain on “like terms.”)

This slide introduces different types of terms at a conceptual level and how they are rearranged into like groups. It also introduces the use of a binary operation between the two groups of terms (vs adding everything together as the students are wont to do). This slide also establishes color coding by like terms, which is useful for when the work shifts from concrete form (manipulatives) to abstract form (written symbols).

This is the mathy version of grouping by like terms. This slide is crucial as it presents the Associate Property with the binary operation symbols acting for a moment as unary operations. In other words, the addition symbol follows the 2b, the 4t, and the 1b before latching on to another term. It is easier to address this while all operations are addition. Present the original problem as an algebraic expression and not individual pieces “3t plus 2b plus 4t plus 1b”. NOTE: I keep the coefficient of 1 to reduce task demand – one less thing to think about. I address the implied coefficient of 1 after students have had ample exposure to like terms.

The use of 1 dollar bills is intended to introduce constants. I fluctuate between whether to write the terms for the bills with or without units (4 dollars vs 4).

At this point, I suggest giving students independent practice with expressions that have addition only before moving on to the following slide.

This slides shows how I introduce subtraction and negative terms. The image shows a woman eating a taco, hence it cancels one of the tacos.

I present the eating 1 taco image as a negative, with the terms separated as opposed to being an expression. This allows the students to see the “-” symbol as a unary operations (negative) and then as a binary operations (subtraction). In other words, they see the symbol “attached” to the term. It is a prelude to the use of the Associative Property with subtraction.

The new image is of a person eating a burrito. The slide introduces the concept of the negative term in the Associate Property.

**The students are now presented with the what is likely the most challenging aspect combining like terms, which is the “-” fluctuating between being a unary and binary operation. The original problem is again presented as an algebraic expression, “2b minus 2t plus 4t minus 1b”. The minus 2t is converted into negative 2t while the minus 1b is converted temporarily converted into negative 1b as it is moved, but then is converted back into minus 1b. This is the opportunity to unpack this situation. You redo the problem with the 4t minus 2t and negative 1b + 2b (and add the plus symbol) as part of the discussion. You can also duplicate this slide and revise into different problem.**

The next two slides have the color and the “?” sticky note faded. They can duplicate an existing sticky note to record the final answer (or you can add in the “?”).

Finally, students are presented static algebraic expressions. I return to color coding as this is a support they can take with them to handouts. Eventually, the color is faded on the handouts, but they can still use shapes to indicate the different types of terms.

Copy the Jamboard and to edit and use it.

## Introduction to Absolute Value – Distance from Home

Here is a Jamboard to introduce the concept of absolute value (make a copy and you can edit – see photo at bottom of this post).

Start with prior knowledge of how many houses a child is from home. Emphasize that the number of houses is positive.

Change the setting from a row of houses to the number line and refer to the distance from home.

Change from distance to absolute value and emphasize that the symbol indicate distance from home and is called absolute value.

The house is removed and introduce the concept of the distance from 0.

Finally, convert from boys to the numbers and the distance from 0 for a number. Emphasize that the distance is positive, even for negative numbers.

To make a copy of the Jamboard.

## Matching Activity for Linear Function Representations

Here is a matching activity on a Google Slides file for various representations of a set of linear functions: verbal, symbolic (equation), graphical, and tabular (or data). The students use gallery view of the slides and sort them by function. Then they can change the background color with a different color for each function. This invokes their analytical skills to decipher key elements of the function and of each representation, for example they may identify the value of the y-intercept in the equation and find a graph with the same value.

## Proportional Relationship (with k) vs Linear Function (with m)

There have been interesting discussions on various Facebook Teacher pages about proportional relationships vs linear functions. This mirrors discussion about the constant of proportionality vs slope vs unit rates.

The difference between the proportional relationships and slope is context and the ratios. The ratio for the former addresses the variables themselves. The ratio for the slope addresses the change in the variables. This arises from context. To flesh this out let’s use the pay as a function of hours, with \$15 an hour for the hourly rate.

• If we focus on the fact that to compute the total pay, we multiply by the hours worked by 15 we have a proportional relationship and the \$15 an hour is a constant of proportionality.
• If we focus on the fact that every increase of 1 hour results in an increase of \$15 in our total pay, we have a linear function and the \$15 an hour is a rate of change (or slope of the line). Because of the context, we have different constants (k vs m).

## Algebra 1: Concepts and Skills

I had an interesting discussion through a Facebook post recently regarding concepts vs skills. I want to share some information I have gathered regarding this topic. I do so, because there were a substantial number of teachers advocating for skill based learning. I hope to initiate some meaningful discussion.

Below left is a photo of an information processing model presented in a graduate level course on learning I took at UCONN. A key element I want to highlight is that information is more effectively processed if the information is meaningful. A theory behind this is Gestalt Theory in which the brain want to make information meaningful or organize it, e.g., the closure model in which our brains complete the triangle in the middle of the circle portions.

The meaning underlying math skills originates in the concepts. Below are the definitions for both, with the concepts being the “how or why” underlying the skills which are the “what to do” part.

I am not arguing that skills are unimportant or that rote practice is wrong. My position is that the concepts should drive the process. Here is a cartoon I think highlights the challenges with students having only skill based knowledge for topics that have important underlying concepts. I witnessed this first hand as a college adjunct instructor and found that a substantial number of students only understood slope by its formula. I also see a substantial number of students receiving special ed services who are taught at a skill level only to allow for progress. Often this is challenging for them when they have working memory or processing issues.

I will summarize in my own words an interpretation an article I read on the definition of Math, which stated there is no singular definition. The following was a theme that appeared to emerge. Math is a set of quantitative related ideas that can help explain the phenomena and the world. The mathematical symbols are used to represent these ideas. There are different ways to represent these ideas, e.g., we represent functions with tables, graphs, and equations. Formal proofs in Western Civilization are not the same a those in the East. Computer based proofs are not fully accepted by many math experts.

Technology has provided amazing ways to represent mathematical ideas. The most genius approach I have encountered is Dragonbox. The image below shows their initial representation of an equation through their algebra app. It develops the concept and the skills simultaneously.

Below is a list of some algebra 1 topics and some of the associated concepts. These are largely derived from math sources but include some massaging by me. I am happy to hear the working definitions of others.