Matches for: “color” …

Color – Easy to Implement Strategy

When my son was in preschool I asked him who was in his class. He replied, ” Natalie, she’s the yellow heart.” Children learn color before they learn words because it is easier to process.

preschool shapes and colors

This is found in children’s toys with color used to guide use of toys.

keyboard for childrens book

The obvious use of color in real life in traffic lights. The colors represent different concepts with red being used universally in the U.S. as representing stop. Color is used to partition an object into sections, as often seen in maps of areas with different sections. Think of how many highlighters are sold to college students to help them highlight key passages in textbooks.

traffic lightsFenway Park, Boston Red Sox's Ballpark - Ballparks Of Baseball in Miller Park Seating Chart With Seat Numbers Image

The use of color help convey information, especially sections of a whole is an effective and easy to use instructional or support strategy.

The top two images below show my earliest attempts to use color. The student for whom this was used was a 7th grade student with asperger’s who tested in math and reading at a 1st grade level.

In lieu of referring to the “horizontal line” I can refer to the “yellow line” as in “find the yellow 3” for plotting the point (3, -2). Color, as in the aforementioned yellow heart, is much more intuitive for students, especially those with a disability.

coordinate plane

Color was used for the same student to represent positive and negative numbers, first with concrete tokens then with colored numbers on paper.

adding integers chips and colored pencils (2)

More examples are shown below. Color helps a student focus on the different parts of an equation or different parts of a ruler.

linear equationsruler

Color can also help organize a room into different parts. Each color represented different courses I taught, e.g. green was used for algebra 2. The room is more organized because of the sections outlined in color. Consider how this can help a student with ADHD, autism or an executive functioning disorder.

 

classroom

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Color Coding for Calculus

IMG_20160223_081145571

This is an example of color coding (highlighting) to help make a calculus problem accessible. You don’t have to know calculus to see that the yellow sections (left and right of the 0) are going up while the green section is going down. Color coding breaks a whole into parts that are easier to see and understand – works in preschool all through calculus!

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Colorado Numeracy Project

CSDE NP

This blog contains information, links and discussions related to Math PD for the ASD NP.

Color Coding and Representation for Integers

adding integers chips and colored pencils

This example involves adding integers which is a major challenge for many students. There are two strategies present in the photo.

Color coding is an effective way to break down a concept into parts. Here red is used for negative numbers and yellow for positive. The numbers are written in red and yellow with colored pencils.

The chips are a concrete representation. Typically integers are only presented in number form and often with a rule similar to the one below. The strategy is to count out the appropriate number of red chips for the negative number and yellow chips for positive number. Each yellow chip cancels a red chip and what remains is the final answer. If there are two negative numbers then there is no canceling and the total number of red chips is computed (same with positive and yellow).

  • + + = +
  • – – = –
  • + – use the bigger number…

Rules are easy to forget or mix up especially when students learn the rules for multiplying integers. Concrete allows students to internalize the concept as opposed to memorize some abstract rule in isolation.

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Color Coding and Different Representation for Rounding

color coding for rounding adjusted (2)

 

There are two strategies used in this example for rounding.

The number line is a different representation for a rounding situation. In CRA this is the representational or pictorial level. Typically students are taught to round by looking only at the numbers which is purely symbolic.

The color coding helps the students discriminate between the number being rounded and the choices for rounding. As I’ve written previously, color coding helps a student discern different parts of a concept.

 

The handouts are found at Super Teacher Worksheets.

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Color Coding the Coordinate Plane

ordered pair ic

I had a 7th grader who could not plot points. He has asperger’s and tested at a 1st grade level in math. Color coding the coordinate plane worked well for him.

As I have written previously color coding is an effective method to break a concept into smaller parts. Finding 5 on the yellow line is an easier direction to follow than finding 5 on the horizontal or x axis for many students.

The numbers in the ordered pairs are color coordinated with the axes colors. Students learn inductively that the first number in the ordered pair relates to the x or horizontal axis (yellow goes with yellow). Identifying the x-axis can be a subsequent step as the act of plotting the point is the immediate goal. In the photo you can see that the first few problems were color coded but eventually this support was faded and he continued to plot the points correctly.

The handout is found at http://www.superteacherworksheets.com/

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Color Coding a Table

table with shaded columns (2)

Color coding is a form of scaffolding. It can be used to highlight specific parts of a diagram or problem or to help differentiate between different parts. Above is my first attempt at using color coding.

The 8th grade student simply could not interpret the table to answer the question – “explain the trend…”. I originally attempted to draw arrows from number to number to no avail. When I colored the two columns and asked him to tell me about the pink numbers then the yellow numbers he was able to interpret then answer the question.

The working memory for many students can be quite limited. Teachers often include many little details that are easy for us to process but can take much more effort by the student. It’s like a computer that has too many applications running at one time and slows down. Asking a student to look at the pink numbers can be much easier to comprehend than asking him to look at the column for year.

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Information Processing Analogy – Big Picture

Effective instruction is effective because it addresses the key elements of how the brain processes information. I want to share an analogy to help adults (parents and educators) fully appreciate this.

Below is a model of information processing first introduced to me in a master’s course at UCONN.

Here is a summary of what is shown in the model.

  1. Our senses are bombarded by external stimuli: smells, images, sounds, textures and flavors.
  2. We have a filter that allows only some of these stimuli in. We focus on the ones that are most interesting or relevant to us.
  3. Our working memory works to make sense of the stimuli and to package it for storage. Our working memory is like a computer, if there is too much going on, working memory will buffer.
  4. The information will be stored in long term memory.
    • Some will be dropped off in some random location and our brain will forget the location (like losing our keys)
    • Some will be stored in a file cabinet in a drawer with other information just like it. This information is easier to find.

Here is the analogy. You are driving down the street, like the one shown below.

There is a lot of visual stimuli. The priority is for you to pay attention to the arrows for the lanes, the red light and the cars in front of you. You have to process your intended direction and choose the lane.

There is other stimuli that you filter out because it is not pertinent to your task: a car parked off to the right, the herbie curbies (trash bins), the little white arrows at the bottom of the photo. There is extraneous info you may allow to pass through your filter because it catches your eye: the ladder on the right or the cloud formation in the middle.

Maybe you are anxious because you are running late or had a bad experience that you are mulling over. This is using up band width in your working memory. Maybe you are a relatively new driver and simple driving tasks eat up the bandwidth as well.

For students with a disability that impacts processing or attention, the task demands described above are even more challenging. A student with ADHD has a filter that is less effective. A student with autism (a rule follower type) may not understand social settings such as a driver that will run a red light that just turned red. A student with visual processing issues may struggle with picking out the turn arrows.

Effective instruction would address these challenges proactively. Here is a video regarding learning disabilities (LD) that summarizes the need in general for teachers to be highly responsive to student needs. Here is a great video that helps makes sense of what autism in terms of how stimuli can be received by those with autism (look for the street scene). Here is a video of a researcher explaining how ADHD responds to sensory input (he gets to a scenario that effectively encapsulates ADHD).

To address these challenges:

Ironically, this is likely a lot of information for your brain to process…

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Adding ones digits in 2 digit numbers with carrying

A major obstacle in math for many students with special needs is carrying in addition problems. Below is a task analysis approach.

First, I target the step of identifying the ONES and TENS place in the 2 digit sum in the ONES column (below it is 12). In a scaffolded handout I create a box to for the sum with the ONES and TENS separated. At first I give the sum and simply have the student carry the one.

sum of ones given.jpg

Then I have the student find the sum and write it in the box (14 below). Once mastered I have the student write the sum and carry the 1.

sum of ones given

They would have mastered adding single digit numbers before this lesson. I revert back to single digit numbers to allow them to get comfortable with writing the sum off to the side without the scaffolding. (In the example below I modeled this by writing 13.)

sum of ones with color no scaffolding

The last step is to add the TENS digits with the carried 1. I use Base 10 manipulatives to work through all the steps (larger space on the right is for the manipulatives) and have the student write out each step as it is completed with the manipulatives.

sum of ones with carrying with base 10 blocks first

Finally, the student attempts to add without the scaffolding. I continue with color but then fade it.

adding 2 digit numbers with carrying with color no scaffold

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Mailbag Jan 25, 2019

Are you a parent of a student with special needs who is struggling with a math topic? Are you a teacher figuring out how to differentiate for a particular student on a math topic? Pose your question and I will offer suggestions. Share your question via email or in a comment below. I will respond to as many as I can in future mailbag posts.

Here is one from Doug:

You pointed out that what the student really needed to learn was counting money.

What insights do you have for reconciling the pressure of inclusion with the pressure of individual goals?

Randy:

The purpose of special education as explained in IDEA:

The most important statute in IDEA is Purposes in Section 1400(d). The main purposes are:

  • . . . to ensure that all children with disabilities have available to them a free appropriate public education that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs and prepare them for further education, employment and independent living

In short, the purpose of special education is to prepare students for life after public education.

I worked with a family of a 7th grade student and the first step was to ask the parents to share the post-secondary goals. The mother replied that they hoped he could live independently and have a job. He likes working with cars so maybe in that area. In response I mapped out a long-range plan to prepare the student with the math skills needed for working with cars. Given the focus on working with cars measurement that is what dominated the plan (below).long range planning calendar.png

The IEP goals and objectives are supposed to be aligned with the post-secondary goals. The IEP team doesn’t need to wait until age 16 to incorporate this alignment. Students who are more severely impacted by a disability need as much time as they can get to prepare for life!

With all of this in mind, I will reply to the question. If the IEP team is focusing on preparing a student for post-secondary life then programming and services should be aligned accordingly. The main push for this should, in my opinion, come from the parents because this is all about their child. They will be the ones dealing with the outcomes of the education of their child, for better or worse.

If the student needs more small group or individual instruction for math or academics I would focus on a balance between the more isolated settings for crucial academic content vs courses that may more amenable to a general ed setting to allow the socializing and interaction with “non-disabled peers.” I recently completed a report for a math evaluation that involved this very situation. One recommendation was to provide the small group pull out support for math and English while providing full inclusion in gym, art and science (in which labs and group work was prevalent).

If you are an educator my suggestion is to ask the parents to share their ideas regarding post-secondary life. In fact, just this morning I had a conversation with a mother whose student was struggling with the traditional math sequence. We discussed post-secondary goals and she was welcoming of the idea of aligning her son’s math education with what he would likely be doing after high school (which was not college).

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